The Kyoto Protocol was conceived with the aim of dealing with the emergency of global warming and aims to reduce CO2 emissions due to climate warming. While signed on December 11, 1997 by over 180 countries at the “Conference COP3” of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, entered into force only on February, 16th 2005 after the the ratification of the Agreement by the Russian Federation. The agreement commits the contracting states to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride) compared to emissions recorded in 1990 (so-called baseline). Among greenhouse gases, those that has a more worrying climate-changing effects it is undoubtedly the CO2 and the most responsible for this excessive production is human activity.
Among all energy consumption, lighting accounts for 19% of electricity consumption worldwide and 14% in the European Union. The Community institutions are therefore devoting increased attention to the issue that resulted in commitments to ensure, also through improving the efficiency of lighting systems, the plan’s objectives “20 20 20”.
The plan 20 20 20 obliges EU states (EC) to reduce by 20% their greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. This plan is in continuity with the commitments made in Kyoto and opens a new era in which the focus on environmental issues is increasingly important. As for the specific lighting industry, the European Commission published in 2009 on the European Official Journal on Regulation no. 244/2009, which effectively bans, although gradually, the traditional incandescent bulbs and even some – the least efficient – among the fluorescence. The banning of old lighting systems was organized in four phases:
- 1st September 2009: banned incandescent bulbs greater than or equal to 100 watts, and any type of opal bulb, white, not clear.
- 1st September 2010: banned incandescent bulbs greater than or equal to 75 watts and continues the prohibition of any type of opal bulb, white, not clear
- 1st September 2011: banned incandescent bulbs greater than or equal to 60 watts and continues the prohibition of any type of opal bulb, white, not clear.
- 1 September 2012: banned incandescent bulbs greater than or equal to 6 watts and continues the prohibition of any type of opal bulb, white, not clear. It is not, therefore, possible to place on the market the incandescent bulbs of small power, or with greater luminous flux of 60 lumens.
These guidelines shall apply concerning the marketing, not the product on the market that crops also be marketed until stocks are exhausted.
On December 14, 2012 was published Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1194/2012 which contains the specifications for the eco-compatible design of directional lamps, lamps with light emitting diodes and the relevant equipment. The new Regulation provides for the extension of the eco-design requirements also for the following lighting products:
- LED lamps (directional and non-directional addition of performance requirements to those already introduced by Regulation 244/2009);
- LED modules;
- directional lamps (all technologies);
- Power units for filament lamps (transformers for halogen);
- Power unit for LED lamps (electronic transformers);
- for lamps of control devices (switches, dimmers, sensors);
- lighting equipment for filament lamps, and LED CFLi.
The new eco-design requirements will become mandatory / will come into force in the following format:
- Phase 1: September 1, 2013 (for certain parameters there is a derogation until 1 March 2014);
- Phase 2: September 1, 2014;
- Phase 3: September 1, 2016.
To complete the regulatory framework were issued two regulations: Regulation (EC) No. 245/2009 of 18 March 2009 of the Commission of 18 March 2009 (amended by Regulations (EC) n. 347/2010), which establishes the requirements for the environmentally friendly planning of fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast, discharge lamps high intensity, power supplies and luminaires able to operate such lamps. These Regulations are both measures of implementation of Directive 2009/125 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for the introduction of eco-design requirements for energy-related products.
For the implementation of the Regulations intentions three main phases have been planned and set targets deli:
STEP 1 (13.04.2010) cannot longer be placed on the market EU27 The following types of lamps:
- Fluorescent lamps Halophosphate: Linear T8, Form U, T9 Circular and Linear T4.
PHASE 2 (13.04.2012) cannot longer be placed on the market EU27 The following types of lamps:
- Fluorescent lamps Halophosphate: T10, T12;
- Lamps High Pressure Sodium;
- Metal halide lamps (E27 / E40 / PGZ12);
- Lamps that do not meet the criteria established for metal halide lamps with attacks E27 / E40 / PGZ12 Sodium high-pressure standard E27 / E40 / PGZ12.
PHASE Intermediate (04.13.2015) cannot longer be placed on the EU27 market the following types of lamps:
- the high-pressure mercury lamps;
- High-pressure sodium lamps for direct replacement of mercury lamps high pressure.
STEP 3 (13.04.2017) cannot longer be placed on the market EU27 The following types of lamps:
- lamps with high-efficiency compact fluorescent halide two pins
- EUROPEAN COMMISSION, GREEN PAPER “Lighting the Future Accelerating the deployment of innovative lighting technologies”
- Directive 2009/29 / EC of 23 April 2009
- Implementation Measures for non-directional household lamps from the Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1194/2012